The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It is composed of 15 members, five of whom are permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) with veto power, and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms.
The Security Council’s primary function is to prevent and resolve conflicts between and within states. It does so by authorizing and overseeing peacekeeping missions, imposing sanctions, and using military force if necessary. The Council can also refer cases to the International Criminal Court for investigation and prosecution of individuals responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.
The Security Council is empowered to take action when it determines that there is a threat to international peace and security. It does so through resolutions, which are binding on all UN member states. The Council’s decisions are made by consensus or, in the case of a veto by a permanent member, by a vote of at least nine members.
In addition to its primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, the Security Council also plays a critical role in addressing a wide range of global issues, such as terrorism, climate change, and humanitarian crises. The Council works closely with other UN bodies, including the General Assembly, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat, to coordinate international efforts to address these challenges. This year, the UNSC has dealt with crucial issues such as protecting political stability in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the ongoing civil war in Haiti. The Security Council in this conference will attempt to achieve stability and peace through fruitful debate and form resolutions.